Q. 1:Which one of the following best describes what the passage is trying to do?
A) It questions on explanation about how maps are designed.
B) It corrects a misconception about the way maps are designed.
C) It critiques a methodology used to create maps
D) It explores some myths about maps
Correct Answer:- B
A thorough reading of the passage, with particular focus on the first sentence of the second paragraph “Given such a long period of considered to be on the top” and the second and third sentences of the last paragraph “It’s tempting to.. at all” points to 2
being the correct choice; the passage corrects the misconception that Columbus and Megallan played a key role in north being decided as the top.
Correct Answer:- B
North was not put at the top because it was the source of darkness (refer to the second paragraph). It was not put at the top because other religions like Christianity and Islam considered east and south respectively as the top (refer to the fourth paragraph). It was not put at the top because in early Christianity, east was considered sacred (refer to the third and fourth paragraphs).
Q. 3: According to the passage, early Chinese maps placed north at the top because Options:
A) the Chinese invented the compass and were aware of magnetic north
B) they wanted to show respect to the emperor.
C) the Chinese emperor appreciated the winds from the south.
D) north was considered the most desirable direction.
Q. 4: It can be inferred from the passage that European explorers like Columbus and Megellan Options:
A) set the precedent for north-up maps.
B) navigated by the compass.
C) used an eastward orientation for religious reasons.
D) navigated with the help of early maps
Correct Answer:- C Explanation:-
The last paragraph, particularly some of the last sentences “When Columbus describes the world, it is in accordance with east being at the top. Columbus says he is going towards paradise, so his mentality is from a medieval mappa mundi” clearly shows that he used an eastward orientation for religious reasons; please note from the previous paragraph that mappa mundi were Christian maps of that era.
Q. 5: Which one of the following about the northern orientation of modern maps is asserted in the passage?
A) The biggest contributory factor was the understanding of magnetic north
B) The biggest contributory factor was the role of European explorers
C) The biggest contributory factor was the influence of Christian maps
D) The biggest contributory factor is not stated in the passage
Correct Answer:- D Explanation:-
Please refer to the last paragraph, particularly the last sentence “We have got to remember that at the time, no one knows what they are doing and where they are going”. This clearly shows that it is not clear as to what the biggest contributory factor to making the map north-oriented was. Choice (4)
Q. 6: The role of natural phenomena in influencing map-making conventions is seen most clearly in
A) early Egyptian maps
B) early Islamic maps
C) early Chinese maps
D) early Christian maps
Correct Answer:- A
Explanation:- After the passage, particularly the first two paragraphs, is read carefully, it is easy to arrive at 1 as the apt choice. Also, the subsequent paragraphs establish that factors like religion and deference to authority – and not natural phenomena – played a role in the map-making of the others