Q. 1: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.
North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves—they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away. At first, scientists suspected birds were simply startled by the loud noise. But a new study suggests a more sophisticated mechanism: the caterpillar’s whistle appears to mimic a bird alarm call, sending avian predators scrambling for cover. When pecked by a bird, the caterpillars whistle by compressing their bodies like an accordion and forcing air out through specialized holes in their sides. The whistles are impressively loud – they have been measured at over 80 dB from 5 cm away from the caterpillar – considering they are made by a two-inch long insect.
A) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars will whistle periodically to ward off predator birds – they have a specialized vocal tract that helps them whistle.
B) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars can whistle very1 loudly; the loudness of their whistles is shocking as they are very small insects.
C) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of acoustic deception, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.
D) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of deception and camouflage, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.
Correct Answer:- C
Explanation:- Option 1 cannot be the appropriate summary because it fails to mention that the walnut sphinx moth caterpillars make use of acoustic deception to ward off predators. Further, it is not stated in the paragraph that they have specialized vocal chords. Even option 2 fails to capture the essence of the paragraph as it does not mention the point – the acoustic deception used by the caterpillars to mimic bird alarm calls Between options 3 and 4, the former is appropriate as option 4 talks about deception and not “acoustic deception” which is employed by the birds. Further, it is not mentioned in the paragraph that the caterpillars use “camouflage” to trick the predators. Hence option 3 captures the essence of the paragraph.
Correct Answer:- D
Explanation:- It can be understood from the paragraph that both Socrates and Bacon believed that arguments and theories can be validated only by examining them from both sides. This point is stated only in option 4. Option 1, which states that Socrates and Bacon advocated clever questioning in order to disprove the arguments and theories put forth by opponents, is not the appropriate summary of the paragraph. Option 2 captures only a part of the argument. Option 3 is a distortion of the paragraph.
Q. 3: Identify the most appropriate summary for the paragraph.
A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.” Oftentimes, the only way to determine the meaning of a word is to examine how it is used. This insight is often described as the “meaning is use” doctrine. There are differences between the “meaning is use” doctrine and a dictionary-first theory of meaning. “The dictionary’s careful fixing of words to definitions, like butterflies pinned under glass, can suggest that this is how language works. The definitions can seem to ensure and fix the meaning of words, just as the gold standard can back a country’s currency.” What Wittgenstein found in the circulation of ordinary language, however, was a free-floating currency of meaning. The value of each word arises out of the exchange. The lexicographer abstracts a meaning from that exchange, which is then set within the conventions of the dictionary definition.
A) Dictionary definitions are like ‘gold standards’ – artificial, theoretical and dogmatic. Actual meaning of words is their free- exchange value.
B) Language is already slippery; given this, accounting for ‘meaning in use’ will only exasperate the problem. That is why lexicographers ‘fix’ meanings
C) Meaning is dynamic; definitions are static. The ‘meaning in use’ theory helps us understand that definitions of words are culled from their meaning in exchange and use and not vice versa.
D) The meaning of words in dictionaries is clear, fixed and less dangerous and ambiguous than the meaning that arises when words are exchanged between people.
Correct Answer:- C
Explanation:- The main point of the paragraph is that language is fluid and its meaning is derived from usage and exchange. Lexicographers abstract the meaning from that exchange and this meaning is then set within the meaning of the dictionary definition. This point is covered only in option 3. Options 2 and 4, which suggest the converse of what is stated in the paragraph, are easy eliminations. Option 1 captures only a part of the paragraph as it does not mention that the definitions of words are extracted from their meaning in exchange.
Q. 4: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.
1. The implications of retelling of Indian stories, hence, takes on new meaning in a modern India.
2. The stories we tell reflect the world around us.
3. We cannot help but retell the stories that we value – after all, they are never quite right for us – in our time.
4. And even if we manage to get them quite right, they are only right for us – other people living around us will have different reasons for telling similar stories.
5. As soon as we capture a story, the world we were trying to capture has changed.
Correct Answer:- 25341
Explanation:- Statement 2, which is general statement, begins the paragraph declaring that the stories that we tell reflect the world around us. 5 complements 2 stating that as soon as we capture a story, the world we were trying to capture has changed. 3 carries the discussion forward by emphasizing that we cannot but retell the stories that we value. 4 is linked to 3 – “never quite right” (statement 3) and “even if we manage to get them quite right” (statement 4). 1 concludes the para stating that the implications of retelling stories takes on a new meaning in a modern India. Therefore, 25341 is the appropriate sequence.
Q. 5: The five sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4, and 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentence and key in this sequence of five numbers as your answer.
1. Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations similar to ones that food undergoes in our digestive machinery.
2. In its aerial form nitrogen is insoluble, unusable and is in need of transformation.
3. Lightning starts the series of chemical reactions that need to happen to nitrogen, ultimately helping it nourish our earth.
4. Nitrogen – an essential food for plants – is an abundant resource, with about 22 million tons of it floating over each square mile of earth.
5. One of the most dramatic examples in nature of ill wind that blows goodness is lightning.
Correct Answer:- 53421
Explanation:- 5 begins the paragraph by talking about the importance of lightning. 3, which states that lightning starts the series of chemical reactions that need to happen to nitrogen, and ultimately helps it to nourish the earth, is a continuation of 5. 4 follows 3 by explaining how nitrogen nourishes the earth with its ubiquitous presence over each square mile on earth. 2 follows by describing that nitrogen, in its aerial form is insoluble and that it is in need of transformation. 1 complements 2 explaining how nitrogen must undergo transformation similar to the way that food undergoes transformation in our digestive machinery. The logical sequence is 53421.