Q. 1: In the author’s opinion, the shift in thinking in the 1970s:
1. introduced greater stress into people’s lives as they were expected to be responsible for their own happiness.
2. was a welcome change from the earlier view that depression could be cured by changing circumstances.
3. put people in touch with their own feelings rather than depending on psychologists.
4. reflected the emergence of neuroscience as the authority on human emotions.
This is a very good question. We must touch the right area of the passage to arrive at the answer. The clue to the answer lies in the last paragraph, which says “Since the 1970s, depression has come to be viewed as a cognitive or neurological defect in the individual, and never a consequence of circumstances. All of this simply escalates the sense of responsibility each of us feels for our own feelings, and with it, the sense of failure when things go badly.”
The author suggests that before 1970 people thought that depression was a result of one’s circumstances. Option b is incorrect, as it speaks about how depression could be cured, while the passage has nothing about it.
As the second part of the extract suggests, people, after 1970, became more responsible towards their happiness, as it became clear that depression was not a result of circumstances but of neurological or cognitive defects.
Option 1 is the best choice.
This is a slightly tricky question. To answer this question correctly, we have to correctly identify the author’s argument or view. The author’s views can be found in many parts of the passage.
The author’s views are clearly expressed in the second paragraph:
As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.
The author in the last sentence says that happiness indicators are used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals. Option 4 clearly weakens the author’s argument by saying that stakeholders are moving away from collecting data on the well-being of individuals. Thus, option 4 is undermining or weakening the author’s argument.
All the other three choices are supportive of the author’s views given in the paragraph.
Q. 3: According to the author, Dubai:
1. develops sophisticated technologies to monitor its inhabitants’ states of mind.
2. incentivises companies that prioritise worker welfare.
3. collaborates with Facebook to selectively influence its inhabitants’ moods.
4. is on its way to becoming one of the world’s happiest cities.
Option 1 is clearly stated in the second paragraph of the passage. The second para says: Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the “happiest city in the world,” dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces…
Thus, option 1 is the right choice. There is no evidence for option 2 and 3, while option 4 says that it is on its way to becoming one of the world’s happiest cities. However, the passage says that Dubai wants to become. It doesn’t mean that it is likely to become the happiest city in the world.
Q. 4: According to the author, wearable technologies and social media are contributing most to:
1. happiness as a “personal project”.
2. disciplining individuals to be happy.
3. depression as a thing of the past.
4. making individuals aware of stress in their lives.
The clue to the right answer is in the first paragraph; towards the end the author says that wearable devices are helping us to reduce stress. In other words, they are disciplining individuals to be happy. Option 3 is not so good a choice because though it is trying to make us happy, it does not say that it will entirely overcome depression in individuals. Option 3 is too extreme an interpretation of what is given in the passage.
Q. 5: From the passage we can infer that the author would like economists to:
1. correlate measurements of happiness with economic indicators.
2. measure the effectiveness of Facebook and social media advertising.
3. incorporate psychological findings into their research cautiously.
4. work closely with neuroscientists to understand human behaviour.
The clue to the right answer is given in the very first sentence of the passage. The author right at the start says that economists have ignored psychology. From this we can infer that he would like economists to incorporate psychological findings in their research work. Option 3 becomes the right choice.
4. The question asks us to choose the option that is true according to the passage. The double negatives: negate and EXCEPT cancel themselves out.
The following extract from paragraph 2, “The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively” contains all the information required to be able to answer this question.
Option 1 cannot be said to be true according to the passage. The material of the penguins’ plumage has not been discussed in the passage. In option 2, the temperatures of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs should have read -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Thus, option 2 is also untrue and is eliminated.
Option 3 is correct and true and is borne out by the extract given above.
Option 4 is not true. The extract given above gives the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study to be 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Q. 5: According to the passage, squatter cities are environment-friendly for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
1. their transportation is energy efficient.
2. they sort out garbage.
3. they recycle material.
4. their streets are kept clean.