Q. 1: : The passage makes all of the following claims EXCEPT:
1. elephant mothers are evolving newer ways of rearing their calves to adapt to emerging threats.
2. the elephant response to deeply disturbing experiences is similar to that of humans.
3. human actions such as poaching and culling have created stressful conditions for elephant communities.
4. elephants establish extended and enduring familial relationships as do humans.
The second choice can be seen in the last sentence of the second last paragraph: “the elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with…. humans…”
Again, the evidence for choice 2 can been found in the second last paragraph; anthropocentric means concerning humans or brought by/caused by humans. Thus both options 2 and 3 can be safely eliminated.
The clue to the choice 4 can be found in the third paragraph, which says that elephants are profoundly social creatures. For option1 we have no evidence.
This question is just another way of asking the central idea of the question. Here we have been asked to express the overall argument of the passage.
Though option 4 is visible in the paragraph, it is not the central idea. The central idea seems to be focusing on the change in the elephants’ attitude towards humans. Option 1 captures the key argument of the passage.
Like option 4, option 2, though true as per the passage, is not the key focus of the passage.
Option 3 might look like a good choice, but there is a flaw in the option. The passage is not focusing on the relationship between elephants and humans, though the passage starts on that note. The author is more focused on bringing to our attention the aggressive behavior of elephants and tries to find out the causes of that aggression.
Option 1 is the best choice because bulk of the passage is dedicated to how and why the elephants behave aggressively (species-wide-trauma-related response)
Q. 3: Which of the following measures is Bradshaw most likely to support to address the problem of elephant aggression?
1. Funding of more studies to better understand the impact of testosterone on male elephant aggression.
2. The development of treatment programmes for elephants drawing on insights gained from treating post-traumatic stress disorder in humans.
3. Studying the impact of isolating elephant calves on their early brain development, behaviour and aggression.
4. Increased funding for research into the similarity of humans and other animals drawing on insights gained from human-elephant similarities.
To answer this question, we must first carefully read the question. The question wants us to address the problem of aggression in elephants, suggesting that we must pick the option that brings a solution to the problem of elephant aggression.
Option 1 goes out because the testosterone issue is not at all a concern or the bone of contention. Moreover, by understanding it, how would we be able to address the problem concerning elephant aggression.
Option 2 could indeed help us address the problem of elephant aggression because the trauma experienced by elephants is very similar to stress disorder in humans, and because elephants are social creatures just as humans are, insights gained from treating post-traumatic stress disorder in humans might help us address the problem of elephant aggression. Option 2 is the right choice
Both option 3 and 4 are not likely to contribute in any ways to addressing the problem of elephant aggression. If yes, then there must a strong evidence for that in the passage, but we have no such evidence.
Q. 4: In paragraph 4, the phrase, “The fabric of elephant society . . . has(s) effectively been frayed by . . .” is:
1. an accurate description of the condition of elephant herds today.
2. a metaphor for the effect of human activity on elephant communities.
3. a exaggeration aimed at bolstering Bradshaw’s claims.
4. an ode to the fragility of elephant society today.
The fabric has been frayed is a figurative expression in which the elephant society has been compared to a fabric that humans have frayed. Choice 2, by stating that it is a metaphor, properly captures the essence of the statement.
Option 1 is incorrect because the statement is not a description but an assertion of a condition that exists today.
Both option 3 and 4 are not in tune with the author’s purpose. The author is not exaggerating the disintegration of elephant society. He is, in fact, being quite sympathetic.
Option 4 suggests that the society has become frail on its own, without any external cause. But human activity is the cause and that has frayed the fabric. Thus, option 4 too is not correctly expressing the idea given in the question.
Q. 5: In the first paragraph, Bradshaw uses the term “violence” to describe the recent change in the human-elephant relationship because, according to him:
1. there is a purposefulness in human and elephant aggression towards each other.
2. elephant herds and their habitat have been systematically destroyed by humans.
3. human-elephant interactions have changed their character over time.
4. both humans and elephants have killed members of each other’s species.
The hint to the right answer is there in the first para. The author says that there is intentionality associated with the word ‘violence’, suggesting that there is a reason behind human and elephant aggression towards each other. Option 1 is thus the right choice.
Option 2 says ‘systematically destroyed’. There is no evidence of ‘systematic destruction’ of elephant herds by humans. It is an extreme choice.
Option 3 is true as per the passage, but that is not the reason behind the author’s using the term ‘violence’ to describe the recent change in the human-elephant relationship.
Option 4 is incorrect but the author is focusing on elephants’ aggression towards humans, something that should not be necessarily interpreted as ‘killing’
4. The question asks us to choose the option that is true according to the passage. The double negatives: negate and EXCEPT cancel themselves out.
The following extract from paragraph 2, “The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively” contains all the information required to be able to answer this question.
Option 1 cannot be said to be true according to the passage. The material of the penguins’ plumage has not been discussed in the passage. In option 2, the temperatures of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs should have read -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Thus, option 2 is also untrue and is eliminated.
Option 3 is correct and true and is borne out by the extract given above.
Option 4 is not true. The extract given above gives the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study to be 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Q. 5: According to the passage, squatter cities are environment-friendly for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
1. their transportation is energy efficient.
2. they sort out garbage.
3. they recycle material.
4. their streets are kept clean.