CAT 2018 – Slot 1 – Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension – The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph

Q. 1:The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:
1. But now we have another group: the unwitting enablers.
2. Democracy and high levels of inequality of the kind that have come to characterize the United States are simply incompatible.
3. Believing these people are working for a better world, they are, actually, at most, chipping away at the margins, making slight course corrections, ensuring the system goes on as it is, uninterrupted.
4. Very rich people will always use money to maintain their political and economic power

This passage is written in a narrative style conducive to a magazine article. In this passage, the author discusses the advantages that cities and urban settlements have on the environment. In slums, there are vast recycling industries of almost every material conceivable and most people travel on environmentally friendly modes of transport such as rickshaws or bicycles or on foot.

The author quotes Calthorpe who is of the opinion that cities are the environmentally most benign form of human settlement since each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities. The concentration of population and enterprises in urban areas greatly reduces the unit cost of piped water, sewers, drains, roads, electricity, garbage collection, transport, health care, and schools.

The author though also offers some disadvantages of cities. They concentrate crime, pollution, disease and injustice as much as business, innovation, education and entertainment. However, he ends the passage by stating another advantage that cities possess; they have a transformative effect on people.

The passage clearly implies that cities are relatively more “green” than other less densely populated areas. Therefore, option 1 can be inferred and is not the correct answer.

Cities do offer employment opportunities. Refer to paragraph 6. Thus, option 2 can also be inferred and is eliminated.

Cities do contribute to the “transformation” of residents. Thus, option 3 can also be inferred and is also eliminated.

Option 4 has not been mentioned in the passage at all. The passage has not demarcated cities into suburban and office areas. Therefore, option 4 cannot be inferred and is the correct answer.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

 
Q. 2: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
1. In many cases time inconsistency is what prevents our going from intention to action.
2. For people to continuously postpone getting their children immunized, they would need to be constantly fooled by themselves.
3. In the specific case of immunization, however, it is hard to believe that time inconsistency by itself would be sufficient to make people permanently postpone the decision if they were fully cognizant of its benefits.
4. In most cases, even a small cost of immunization was large enough to discourage most people.
5. Not only do they have to think that they prefer to spend time going to the camp next month rather than today, they also have to believe that they will indeed go next month.

Option 1 is incorrect as “violent crime” does not have an adverse impact on the environment.

Option 2 is also incorrect as “the rapid spread of diseases” does not directly impact upon the environment.

Option 3 is the correct answer. If the high density of cities leads to an increase in carbon dioxide and global warming then it would undermine the author’s assertion that cities are relatively environmentally benign.

Option 4 is also incorrect. Increased cost of utilities is not likely to have an adverse impact on the environment.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3. 

Q. 3: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
1. Displacement in Bengal is thus not very significant in view of its magnitude.
2. A factor of displacement in Bengal is the shifting course of the Ganges leading to erosion of river banks.
3. The nature of displacement in Bengal makes it an interesting case study.
4. Since displacement due to erosion is well spread over a long period of time, it remains invisible.
5. Rapid displacement would have helped sensitize the public to its human costs.

Refer to the relevant extract in paragraph 3, ‘In his 1985 article, Calthorpe made a statement that still jars with most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.”’ This statement jars with most people because the conventional wisdom up until that time was that cities were actually very destructive towards the environment. Note that the passage is about the relative benign impact of cities on the environment. This points to option 4 as being the correct answer.

“Crowded”, “polluted”, “disease” and “crime” are characteristics of city life which the author has mentioned as negatives of living in cities but he has gone on to conclude the passage by also stating the positive impacts of living in cities and by suggesting that the positives of living in cities outweigh the negatives. Secondly, these negative facets of city life are not relevant to Calthorpe’s statement which was solely about the environmental impact that cities have. Thus, options 1, 2 and 3 can be eliminated.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

 

Q. 4: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.
1. The eventual diagnosis was skin cancer and after treatment all seemed well.
2. The viola player didn’t know what it was; nor did her GP.
3. Then a routine scan showed it had come back and spread to her lungs.
4. It started with a lump on Cathy Perkins’ index finger.

The relevant extract in paragraph 5, “[T]he nationally subsidised city of Manaus in northern Brazil “answers the question” of how to stop deforestation: give people decent jobs. Then they can afford houses, and gain security. One hundred thousand people who would otherwise be deforesting the jungle around Manaus are now prospering in town making such things as mobile phones and televisions. . . .” clearly reveals that urbanization has led to less destruction of the environment in Manaus. This points to option 2 as being the correct answer.

Option 1 is incorrect and cannot be inferred from the passage.

Option 3 is also incorrect as the example of Manaus is given to show how jobs and urbanization has led to less destruction of the environment.

All cities are employment hubs for people and not just Manaus. Eliminate option 4.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

 

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4. The question asks us to choose the option that is true according to the passage. The double negatives: negate and EXCEPT cancel themselves out.

The following extract from paragraph 2, “The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively” contains all the information required to be able to answer this question.

Option 1 cannot be said to be true according to the passage. The material of the penguins’ plumage has not been discussed in the passage. In option 2, the temperatures of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs should have read -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Thus, option 2 is also untrue and is eliminated.

Option 3 is correct and true and is borne out by the extract given above.

Option 4 is not true. The extract given above gives the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study to be 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

 

Q. 5: According to the passage, squatter cities are environment-friendly for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
1. their transportation is energy efficient.
2. they sort out garbage.
3. they recycle material.
4. their streets are kept clean.

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