Q. 1: The phrase “mood music” is used in the second paragraph to indicate that the Second World War is viewed as:
1. setting the stage for the emergence of the India–Pakistan rivalry in the subcontinent.
2. a tragic period in terms of loss of lives and national wealth.
3. a backdrop to the subsequent independence and partition of the region.
4. a part of the narrative on the ill-effects of colonial rule on India.
Passage Overview: In the passage the author seems to be stressing on “India’s contribution to the second world war, and its consequences, something which has been ignored both by academicians and the Indian government”
This question is a kind of interpretation question. If we don’t know the meaning of the phrase ‘mood music’, we must try to the see the context in which it has been used. By the way, ‘mood music’ is recorded music that is played in the background to make the audience relax. So if you know the meaning, you can straightaway mark 3 as the answer. A backdrop is a background just as mood music is played in the background. Even from the passage it is clear that to the Indian government and Indian academicians, India’s contribution to the second world war is just a little more than a mood music, in other words it is not a significant contribution, something that the author seems to be lamenting. Option 3 is the right choice.
This is a factual question whose answer depends on how well you are able to find the information scattered in the passage. The first outcome is stated in the first sentence of the third paragraph where the author says that “India’s contribution played a significant role in India’s independence and partition”. So, since option 1 is given, it is not the right answer. Option 2 is given in the fourth paragraph. Option 3 is stated in the third last paragraph. Thus, option 4 is the right choice.
We could have marked option 4 directly, as it is stating exactly opposite of what is given in the passage. It was not India but Britain that owed large financial debt. India was one of the biggest creditors to Britain, the passage says. This means that it was India had lent resources to Britain.
Q. 3: The author claims that omitting mention of Indians who served in the Second World War from the new National War Memorial is:
1. a reflection of the academic and popular view of India’s role in the War.
2. appropriate as their names can always be included in the India Gate memorial.
3. a reflection of misplaced priorities of the post-independence Indian governments.
4. is something which can be rectified in future by constructing a separate memorial.
This is a very easy question, as the clue to the right answer is directly visible in the passage. The first sentence of the second paragraph says that the ‘omission was not absent-minded, suggesting that it was deliberate. He further adds that the omission “accurately reflected the fact that both academic history and popular memory have
yet to come to terms with India’s Second World War”. The other choices are neither stated nor implied in the paragraph.
Q. 4: The author suggests that a major reason why India has not so far acknowledged its role in the Second World War is that it:
1. blames the War for leading to the momentous partition of the country.
2. wants to forget the human and financial toll of the War on the country.
3. has been focused on building an independent, non-colonial political identity.
4. views the War as a predominantly Allied effort, with India playing only a supporting role
This is a slightly difficult question, but can be solved by the process of elimination. Though the passage nowhere directly states the reason why India has not so far acknowledged its role in the Second World War, the hint is there in the second paragraph.
The last sentence of the second paragraph says: With partition and the onset of the India-Pakistan rivalry, both of the new nations needed fresh stories for self-legitimization rather than focusing on shared wartime experiences. “Self-legitimization” would mean self-assertion, or establishing oneself as a strong legal entity. This makes option 3 the right choice. Moreover, none of the other options have any hint in the paragraph. Option 1 and 4 go out because the author asserts that India did make a significant contribution to the war. Option might seem a tempting choice, but there is no hint for it.
Q. 5: The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:
1. Impartiality and objectivity are fiendishly difficult concepts that can cause all sorts of injustices even if transparently implemented.
2. It encourages us into bubbles of people we know and like, while blinding us to different perspectives, but the deeper problem of ‘transparency’ lies in the words “…and much more”.
3. Twitter’s website says that “tweets you are likely to care about most will show up first in your timeline…based on accounts you interact with most, tweets you engage with, and much more.”
4. We are only told some of the basic principles, and we can’t see the algorithm itself, making it hard for citizens to analyse the system sensibly or fairly or be convinced of its impartiality and objectivity..
This is an average difficulty question. Right from the start we can sense that sentence 1 is likely to start the paragraph. It introduces the idea of ‘impartiality and objectivity’. Sentences 2,3 and 4 form one unit because they all revolve around Twitter. The algorithm that statement 4 talks about must be about algorithm that twitter would be using. The pronoun ‘it’ in statement 2 refers to Twitter. Thus 2 must come after 3. 32 is a pair. The problem of transparency in statement 2 is further elaborated in statement 4. Statement 2 says that the problem of transparency lies in something…statement 4 takes over by saying ..we are only told some of the basic principles..(the problem of transparency is continued).
4. The question asks us to choose the option that is true according to the passage. The double negatives: negate and EXCEPT cancel themselves out.
The following extract from paragraph 2, “The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively” contains all the information required to be able to answer this question.
Option 1 cannot be said to be true according to the passage. The material of the penguins’ plumage has not been discussed in the passage. In option 2, the temperatures of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs should have read -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Thus, option 2 is also untrue and is eliminated.
Option 3 is correct and true and is borne out by the extract given above.
Option 4 is not true. The extract given above gives the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study to be 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Q. 5: According to the passage, squatter cities are environment-friendly for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
1. their transportation is energy efficient.
2. they sort out garbage.
3. they recycle material.
4. their streets are kept clean.