Q. 1: Data provided by Cassini challenged the assumption that:
1. Saturn’s ring system is composed mostly of water ice.
2. there was life on earth when Saturn’s rings were being formed.
3. new celestial bodies can form from the destruction of old celestial bodies.
4. all big things in the solar system have been around since the beginning.
The first sentence of the second paragraph says that the things in the solar system are believed to have been around since the beginning. Cassini, however, comes up with evidence that challenges this assumption. Throughout the second and third paragraph we have evidence gathered by Cassini pointing at those things in the solar system that must have come into being later. Dione and Tethys are the two such examples discussed in the last paragraph. Thus choice 4 is the best choice.
This question can be answered on the basis of the evidence used to answer the first question. The author discusses Saturn’s rings and Saturn’s moons to attack the assumption that the things in the solar system have been there since a long long time. Thus the main objective of the passage is to provide evidence that Saturn’s rings and moons are recent creations.
Option 1 is the exact opposite of what the author is trying to convey
Option 2 is not the main objective of the passage. The orbits have been discussed only in the last paragraph where the author says that the orbits of the two of Saturn’s moons are not tilted.
Option 3 there is not much mention of Saturn’s beauty and its celestial drama.
Q. 3: Based on information provided in the passage, we can infer that, in addition to water ice, Saturn’s rings might also have small amounts of:”
1. methane and rock particles.
2. helium and methane.
3. helium and comet dust.
4. rock particles and comet dust.
Support for comet dust can be seen in the last two sentences of the third paragraph. Now we are left with two choices: helium or rock particles. Helium is a gas, while rock particles is matter. The fourth para says that Saturn’s rings were created from the old set of moons that destroyed themselves. Thus the rings must have had substance that the moon was made up of. The moon can be made of rock particles, not helium. Thus option 4 is the best choice.S
Q. 4: The phrase “leaving laundry hanging on a line downwind from a smokestack” is used to explain how the ringed planet’s:
1. atmosphere absorbs comet dust.
2. rings discolour and darken over time.
3. rings lose mass over time.
4. moons create a gap between the rings.
the fact that the rings haven’t discolored and darkened as much as they should have had, if they have been out there since a long time, suggests that they are recent creations. The laundry example is used to explain that. Thus choice 2 is the best answer
Q. 5: Based on information provided in the passage, we can conclude all of the following EXCEPT:
1. Saturn’s lighter rings discolour faster than rings with greater mass.
2. Saturn’s rings were created from the remains of older moons.
3. none of Saturn’s moons ever had suitable conditions for life to evolve.
4. Thethys and Dione are less than 100 million years old.
We can find evidence for 1 in the second half of the first paragraph. Option 2 can be found in the second last paragraph. Option 4 can be found in the last paragraph. Thus 3 is the best choice as we don’t have any evidence in the paragraph for 3.