CAT 2019 - Slot 1 - Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension
- Para Jumbles & Odd Man Out

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Q. 1: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. People with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.
2. An example of a lost cognitive instinct is mind-reading: our capacity to think of ourselves and others as having beliefs, desires, thoughts and feelings.
3. Mind-reading looks increasingly like literacy, a skill we know for sure is not in our genes, since scripts have been around for only 5,000-6,000 years.
4. Print-reading, like mind-reading varies across cultures, depends heavily on certain parts of the brain, and is subject to developmental disorders

1. The paragraph is about mind-reading and print-reading and sentence 1 seems to conclude the paragraph by giving names to people who cannot print-read or have difficulty in mind-reading – people with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.

Sentence 2 is the introductory sentence since it defines and gives the meaning of mind reading. It goes on to mention that mind-reading is a “lost cognitive instinct.”

Sentence 3 extends this thought of mind-reading by likening it to literacy and stating that scripts have been around for only 5000-6000 years. Therefore, literacy is not in our genes.

Sentence 4 with “print reading” extends this thought of scripts being around for a short human period only. Furthermore, it talks about development “disorders” in print-reading.

Sentence 1 concludes the paragraph by giving names to people with mind-reading or print-reading disorders – people with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.

Hence, the correct sequence is 2341.

 
Q. 2: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1.      Metaphors may map to similar meanings across languages, but their subtle differences can have a profound effect on our understanding of the world.
2.      Latin scholars point out carpe diem is a horticultural metaphor that, particularly seen in the context of its source, is more accurately translated as “plucking the day,” evoking the plucking and gathering of ripening fruits or flowers, enjoying a moment that is rooted in the sensory experience of nature, unrelated to the force implied in seizing.
3.      The phrase carpe diem, which is often translated as “seize the day and its accompanying philosophy, has gone on to inspire countless people in how they live their lives and motivates us to see the world a little differently from the norm
4.       It’s an example of one of the more telling ways that we mistranslate metaphors from one language to another, revealing in the process our hidden assumptions about what we really value.

2. Since it is difficult to clearly establish the introductory sentence, let us look for linking pairs.

Sentences 3 and 2 are clearly a linking pair. Both mention the phrase ‘carpe diem.’ While sentence 3 mentions carpe diem is often translated as “seize the day”, its more accurate translation in the context of its source, as mentioned in sentence 2, is “plucking the day” – evoking the plucking and gathering of flowers. Sentence 3, with “The phrase carpe diem” will come first.

It is clear that carpe diem is therefore a metaphor and its meaning has been changed from its original source.

This is exactly what sentence 4 states and this sentence will follow sentence 2.

Sentence 1, at first read, appears to be the introductory sentence of the paragraph but is actually a more effective concluding sentence. It talks about the subtle differences of metaphors across languages which is exactly what sentences 3 and 2 mention in the form of a particular phrase – carpe diem. Sentence 1, therefore, sums up the assertions made in the first three sentences and is the concluding sentence.

Therefore, the correct order of sentences is 3241.

 

Q. 3: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1.
One argument is that actors that do not fit within a single, well-defined category may suffer an “illegitimacy discount”.
2. Others believe that complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.
3. Some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities that span or combine categories, while other organizations possess narrow identities.
4. Identity is one of the most important features of organizations, but there exist opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.
5. Those who think that complex identities are beneficial point to the strategic advantages of ambiguity, and organizations’ potential to differentiate themselves from competitors.

 

3. Let us link the sentences logically and find out which sentence does not conform to the main theme of the paragraph. It is clear that the paragraph is about “identity”, more specifically, identities of organizations. Sentence 4 is the introductory sentence since it introduces the theme of “identity” and the opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.

Sentence 3 follows sentence 4 by mentioning two types of identities that organizations have – some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities while other organizations have narrow identities.

Sentence 5 follows sentence 3 by mentioning “those” who think complex or multidimensional identities are more beneficial to organizations and sentence 2 will follow sentence 5 with “others” who feel the opposite – complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.

Sentence 1 is about “actors” and not about identities at all. Secondly, it is more about “categories” than identities. It does not fit in with the rest of the sentences in the paragraph.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Q. 4: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. If you’ve seen a little line of text on websites that says something like “customers who bought this also enjoyed that” you have experienced this collaborative filtering firsthand.
2. The problem with these algorithms is that they don’t take into account a host of nuances and circumstances that might interfere with their accuracy.
3. If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! – the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.
4. Collaborative filtering is a mathematical algorithm by which correlations and cooccurrences of behaviors are tracked and then used to make recommendations.

 

4.  It is clear that the paragraph is about “Collaborative filtering.” Sentence 4 defines collaborative filtering and is our introductory sentence.

Sentence 1 follows by giving an example of collaborative filtering that occurs on websites.

Sentence 2 highlights a flaw in the process of collaborative filtering and sentence 3 gives an example of this type of flaw. Sentence 2 mentions how collaborative filtering algorithms do not take into account the nuances that might interfere with their accuracy while sentence 3 follows this with a suitable example, which is, If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! – the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.

Hence, the correct sequence is 4123.

Q. 5: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

1.
We’ll all live under mob rule until then, which doesn’t help anyone.
2. Perhaps we need to learn to condense the feedback we receive online so that 100 replies carry the same weight as just one.
3. As we grow more comfortable with social media conversations being part of the way we interact every day, we are going to have to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.
4. A new norm will arise where it is considered unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.

 

5. Sentence 1, with “then” cannot be the introductory sentence and neither can sentence 2 with “perhaps.” Both these words suggest an event or action will precede these sentences. A close reading of the sentences shows us that the paragraph is about “social media conversations” – at least sentences 2,3 and 4 are. Sentences 2 and 4 are about replying to social media conversations while sentence 3 is about social media conversations. Therefore, sentence 3 is the introductory sentence since it is the more generic sentence.

Sentences 2 and 4 are a pair since sentence 2 speaks about condensing feedback or replies and sentence 4 talks about this new norm where it would be unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.

Until this condensation of feedback or replies is undertaken, we will all live under mob rule in the social media universe. Sentence 1 states this and concludes the paragraph.

Hence, the correct sequence is 3241.

 

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