Q. 1: In the last sentence of paragraph 3, “slightly warmer air” and “at a slightly colder temperature” refer to AND respectively:
1. the cold Antarctic air which becomes warmer because of the heat radiated out from penguins’ bodies AND the fall in temperature of the surrounding air after thermal convection
2. the cold Antarctic air whose temperature is higher than that of the plumage AND the fall in temperature of the Antarctic air after it has transmitted some heat to the plumage.
3. the air trapped in the plumage which is warmer than the Antarctic air AND the fall in temperature of the trapped plumage air after it radiates out some heat.
4. the air inside penguins’ bodies kept warm because of metabolism of food AND the fall in temperature of the body air after it transfers some heat to the plumage.
1. The relevant extract in paragraph 3, “Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air). As the cold Antarctic air cycles around their bodies, slightly warmer air comes into contact with the plumage and donates minute amounts of heat back to the penguins, then cycles away at a slightly colder temperature.” A careful reading will lead us to the fact that the “slightly warmer air” refers to the cold Antarctic air whose temperature is higher than that of the plumage and “at a slightly colder temperature” refers to the fall in temperature of the Antarctic air after it has transferred some heat to the plumage of the emperor penguins. Thus, option 2 is the correct answer.
Option 1 is incorrect as explained above.
Nothing has been mentioned about air being trapped in the plumage of the emperor penguins. Eliminate option 3.
Option 4 is incorrect. Food metabolism is not pertinent to the above fill in the blanks question. Secondly, heat is not transferred to the plumage but to the surrounding air by the process of thermal radiation. Eliminate option 4.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.
2. A paradoxical statement is one in which the statement is seemingly contradictory. The following extract in paragraph 2 has the word “paradoxically” – “The scientists also used a computer simulation to determine how much heat was lost or gained from each part of the body—and discovered that by keeping their outer surface below air temperature, the birds might paradoxically be able to draw very slight amounts of heat from the air around them.”
Option 1 is not true according to the passage. Penguins keep their bodies warmer and their plumage colder.
Option 2 is not a paradoxical statement at all. Although it is true it is not contradictory in scope.
Option 3 is the correct answer (refer paragraph 3). Emperor penguins keep their outer plumage colder than the surrounding air in order to keep their bodies warmer. The heat that they lose through thermal radiation is more than made up slightly through convection.
Option 4 is incorrect. Penguins lose heat through radiation and gain it through convection. Thus, option 4 is also eliminated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3
Q. 3: Which of the following can be responsible for Emperor Penguins losing body heat?
1. Thermal convection.
3. Reproduction process
4. Food metabolism.
3. The following extract, “Since their outer plumage is even colder than the air, the simulation showed that they might gain back a little of this heat through thermal convection—the transfer of heat via the movement of a fluid (in this case, the air)” shows that Emperor penguins gain heat during convection. Eliminate option 1.
The Emperor penguin’s plumage is colder than the surrounding air in order for convection to take place. Convection is heat gain. Eliminate option 2.
The following extract in paragraph 4, “And given the Emperors’ unusually demanding breeding cycle, every bit of warmth counts. . . . Since [penguins trek as far as 75 miles to the coast to breed and male penguins] don’t eat anything during [the incubation period of 64 days], conserving calories by giving up as little heat as possible is absolutely crucial” clearly shows the fact that emperor penguins lose heat during the reproduction process. Therefore, option 3 is the correct answer.
The following extract from paragraph 3, “Because their bodies (but not surface plumage) are warmer than the surrounding air, heat gradually radiates outward over time, moving from a warmer material to a colder one. To maintain body temperature while losing heat, penguins, like all warm-blooded animals, rely on the metabolism of food” clearly proves the assertion that emperor penguins gain heat during the food metabolism process. Thus, option 4 is also eliminated.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Q. 4: All of the following, if true, would negate the findings of the study reported in the passage EXCEPT:
1. the penguins’ plumage were made of a material that did not allow any heat transfer through convection or radiation.
2. the temperature of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs were found to be 1.84, 7.24 and 9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively
3. the average temperature of the feet of penguins in the month of June 2008 were found to be 2.76 degrees Fahrenheit.
4. the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study were –10 degrees Fahrenheit
4. The question asks us to choose the option that is true according to the passage. The double negatives: negate and EXCEPT cancel themselves out.
The following extract from paragraph 2, “The researchers analyzed thermographic images . . . taken over roughly a month during June 2008. During that period, the average air temperature was 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit. At the same time, the majority of the plumage covering the penguins’ bodies was even colder: the surface of their warmest body part, their feet, was an average 1.76 degrees Fahrenheit, but the plumage on their heads, chests and backs were -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively” contains all the information required to be able to answer this question.
Option 1 cannot be said to be true according to the passage. The material of the penguins’ plumage has not been discussed in the passage. In option 2, the temperatures of the plumage on the penguins’ heads, chests and backs should have read -1.84, -7.24 and -9.76 degrees Fahrenheit respectively. Thus, option 2 is also untrue and is eliminated.
Option 3 is correct and true and is borne out by the extract given above.
Option 4 is not true. The extract given above gives the average air temperature recorded during the month of June 2008 in the area of study to be 0.32 degrees Fahrenheit.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.