Q. 1: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise.
2. Atonality is a condition of music in which the constructs of the music do not ‘live’ within the confines of a particular key signature, scale, or mode.
3. After you realize the amount of knowledge, skill, and technical expertise required to compose or perform it, your tune may change, so to speak.
4. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music.
It is clear that the paragraph is about atonal music. Therefore, sentence 2 is the introductory sentence since it defines atonal music.
Sentences 1 and 4 are a pair. Sentence 1 states that atonal music can sound chaotic while sentence 4 with the contrasting word, “however” states a positive factor of atonal music – it is one of the most important movements in 20th century music.
Sentence 3 concludes the sentence by stating that although atonal music may sound chaotic, it is actually involves a lot of knowledge, skill, and technical expertise to compose or perform it.
Hence, the correct sequence is 2143.
Let us link the sentences logically. The sentence that will not link logically is the Odd sentence out of the paragraph. Sentence 3 introduces the phenomenon of rumination and is our introductory sentence.
Sentence 4 follows by mentioning another disadvantage of rumination – it is not the way to achieve self-realization.
Sentence 2 then gives a corrective mechanism known as “illeism” – speaking about yourself in the third person.
Sentence 5 concludes the paragraph by this small change (of speaking of yourself in the third person) can be the answer to self-realization.
Sentence 1 is clearly the odd sentence out of the paragraph since it is about the path to “true wisdom” while the other four sentences are about rumination and ways of correcting it.
Hence, the correct answer is sentence 1.
Q. 3: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Language is an autapomorphy found only in our lineage, and not shared with other branches of our group such as primates. We also have no definitive evidence that any species other than Homo sapiens ever had language. However, it must be noted straightaway that ‘language’ is not a monolithic entity, but rather a complex bundle of traits that must have evolved over a significant time frame…. Moreover, language crucially draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory: the language faculty as a whole comprises more than just the uniquely linguistic features.
1. Language is not a single, uniform entity but the end result of a long and complex process of linguistic evolution.
2. Language is a distinctively human feature as there is no evidence of the existence of language in any other species.
3. Language evolved with linguistic features building on features of cognition such as memory.
4. Language, a derived trait found only in humans, has evolved over time and involves memory.
The crux of the paragraph is: The evolution of language over time which was aided by memory found in primates.
Options 1 and 2 do not mention the importance of “memory” – a crucial aspect in the development and evolution of language. They can be eliminated.
Option 4 is incorrect because language is not a derived trait but instead an evolutionary one built over a significant time frame.
Option 3 summarizes the paragraph correctly and succinctly by mentioning the two most important aspects of the paragraph about language – that it evolved over time and that it built on features such as memory.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.
Q. 4:The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. Living things—animals and plants—typically exhibit correlational structure.
2. Adaptive behaviour depends on cognitive economy, treating objects as equivalent.
3. The information we receive from our senses, from the world, typically has structure and order, and is not arbitrary.
4. To categorize an object means to consider it equivalent to other things in that category, and different—along some salient dimension—from things that are not.
It is clear that the paragraph is about “cognitive economy” or categorizing objects as equivalent and dissimilar. Therefore, option 2 is the introductory sentence of the paragraph.
Sentence 4 follows sentence 2 by elaborating on the “equivalent” part first mentioned in sentence 2.
Sentences 3-1 are a pair. Sentence 3 mentions that all information received has some sort of structure and order (and therefore can be categorized) and sentence 1 closes the paragraph by concluding that living things – animals and plants – exhibit correlational structures.
Correlational means existing in some sort of order which is therefore suitable for categorization.
Hence, the sequence is 2431.
Q. 5: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. Such a belief in the harmony of nature requires a purpose presumably imposed by the goodness and wisdom of a deity.
2. These parts, all fit together into an integrated, well-ordered system that was created by design.
3. Historically, the notion of a balance of nature is part observational, part metaphysical, and not scientific in any way.
4. It is an example of an ancient belief system called teleology, the notion that what we call nature has a predetermined destiny associated with its component parts.
The paragraph is about the balance or harmony present in nature. Sentence 3 with “historically” is clearly the introductory sentence as it states the notion of a balance of nature – part observational, part metaphysical, and not scientific in any way.
Sentence 4 follows directly. The pronoun “it” clearly refers to the historical view of nature.
Sentences 4 and 2 are a pair. Sentence 4 mentions “component parts” and sentence 2 with “these parts” continues on the theme of the balance in nature.
Sentence 1 concludes the paragraph. The word “such a belief” sums up the belief mentioned in the sentences 3, 4 and 2.
Hence, the correct sequence is 3421.