Facts: It deals with pieces of information that one has seen, read, or heard, and which are open to verification or discovery. Facts are those statements that involve natural phenomena, dates, events, etc. Facts can be verifiable, Universal truths, figures, statistics, or other data without an opinion.
Inferences: These are conclusions drawn about the unknown based on the known. Inferences check one’s ability to read between the lines. The known data in the sentence which is used to conclude an inference is called facts. So, we can say that all the inferences are based on facts and logic of deduction.
Judgments: These are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, occurrences in the past, present, or future, and, object situations. We can identify judgment from statements that imply approval or disapproval, impose compulsion, and predict using will or shall.
Importance of Critical reasoning: FIJ in competitive exams
Facts, Inferences, and Judgments or “FIJ’s” are one of the simplest yet confusing topics that come in the entrance exams. For the past few years, FIJs have not been asked in CAT, but there are high chances of asking them again since the CAT does not have a well-defined syllabus. Many students often commit mistakes here assuming they are simple.
Critical Reasoning questions in general cover around 30 percent of the Verbal section in GMAT, CLAT, and CAT and they can include any concept of critical reasoning in those questions.
Solving these types of questions is an important part of competitive exams and are often used as criteria to choose the best candidate. It is also a very important part of various government exams, international English examinations, and college entrance exams. Some college entrance exams and UPSC include a separate section for Critical Reasoning questions.
I: The minister said that the Midday meal is a wonderful initiative.
II: The schools of the city have adopted the project and made plans to launch a number of programs
III: With various segments of the society contributing towards it, the Midday Meal initiative is going to be a success
IV: The Midday meal initiative will go a long way towards a better and healthier India
Option 3 – FFIJ
Let us analyze all statements :
Statement 1: Here, we should concentrate on the part “ the minister said”. As the definition goes, all reported statements are facts. Hence, we can say that statement 1 is a fact.
Statement 2: We can verify the statement, so it is a fact.
Statement 3: This sentence shows approval for the Mid-day meal initiative by use of the word success. When we look at the first part of the sentence – with various segments of the society contributing towards it; this shows the reason for success. So, we can say that this is an unknown conclusion based on known facts and hence it is an Inference.
Statement 4: This statement gives approval, but there is no reason provided for it. Hence it is a Judgement.
I: We should not be hopelessly addicted to an erroneous belief that the corruption in India is caused by the crookedness of Indians.
II: The truth is that we have more red tape- we take eighty-nine days to start a small business, Australians take two.
III: Red tape leads to corruption and distorts a person’s character.
IV: Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official, and such contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands.
Option 5 – JFJI
Let us analyze all statements :
This phrase indicates an opinion. So, this is clearly a judgment
The statement indicates that it is a fact.
It is clearly an opinion and not based on the facts provided. So, it is a judgment.
It is a verifiable statement. “Potential to become” indicates it is a conclusion. Based on the prior statement, the conclusion is drawn. So, it is an inference.
I: So much of our day to day focus seems to be on getting things done, trudging our way through the tasks of living – it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?
II: We are not doing the same things that make us happy; that which brings us joy; the things that we cannot do because we enjoy them so much
III: This is the stuff that joyful living is made of – identifying your calling and committing yourself wholeheartedly to it.
IV: When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love the most.
Option 4 – JJJJ
Let us analyze all statements :
It implies that the statement is somebody’s opinion. So, it is a judgment.
The second statement is a person’s opinion. So, it is a judgment.
The third statement “this is the stuff joyful living is made of” again indicates an opinion.
The statement is an opinion. Hence, it is also a judgment.
I: Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister of conflict.
II: Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us – they only change in character.
III: Extensive disarmament is the only insurance of our future; imagine the number of resources that can be released and redeployed.
IV: The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms.
Option 2 – JIJF
Let us check all the given statements.
The first statement “one of the strongest” indicates that there could be more reasons and this being the strongest is a person’s opinion. So, it is a judgment.
The second statement, “ we know that” implies that conflicts continue to trouble us, it is a fact which is, based on the conclusion that they only change in character. So, it is an inference.
The third statement is an opinion. So, it is a judgment.
In the fourth statement, the amount derived can be verified, so it is a fact.
Critical Reasoning practice questions on FIJ
1. Given the poor quality of service in the public sector, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.
2. The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35000 have benefited up to now though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number.
3. The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDS Care Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people.
4. But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial shortage of drugs when India is one of the world‘s largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world.
(1) JFIJ (2) JIIJ (3) IFIJ (4) IFFJ (5) JFII
1. Unemployed allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youths above 18 years of age.
2. Lack of stimulation in the first four or five years of life can have adverse consequences.
3. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and ready to learn, so it is desirable to put the child in the school at the age of 5 or so.
4. No budgetary provision for the purpose of appointing additional faculty has been made in the context of institute’s changed financial priorities.
(1) JJII (2) JJJF (3) FJJF (4) FJIF (5) JJIF
1. Those people are mistaken, as is obvious from the fact that in each of the past six years, our state has spent more money per mile on road improvements than any other state.
2. Several of the particle accelerators at major research institutions were out of service the year before last of repairs, so it is likely that the low number of articles was due to the decline in availability of particle accelerators.
3. When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.
4. Each rancher would be tempted to overuse common land because the benefits would accrue to the individual, while the costs of reduced land quality that results from overuse would be spread among all users.
(1) IIJI (2) IIFJ (3) JJJI (4) JJJF (5) IJIF
1. A compelling optical illusion called the illusion of velocity and size makes objects appear to be moving more slow the larger the objects are.
2. Biological functions of many plants and animals vary in cycles that are repeated every 24 hours.
3. When people move from one time zone to another, their daily biological rhythms adjust in a matter of days to the periods of sunlight and darkness in the new zone.
4. Although migraine headaches are believed to be caused by food allergies, putting patients on diets that eliminate those foods to which the patients have been demonstrated to have allergic migraine reactions frequently does not stop headaches.
(1) JFJF (2) JJJJ (3) FJFJ (4) IIII (5) FFFF
1. The net savings in medical resources achieved by some preventive health measures are smaller than the net losses attributable to certain other measures of this kind.
2. Recently a court ruled that current law allows companies to reject a job applicant if working in the job would entail a 90 percent chance that the applicant would suffer a heart attack.
3. Because the satellites can be repaired only in orbit, astronauts are needed to repair them.
4. In an attempt to promote the widespread use of paper rather than plastic, and thus reduce non biodegradable waste, the council of a small town plans to ban the sale of disposable plastic goods for which substitutes made of paper exist.
(1) JFIJ (2) FFII (3) JJII (4) JFIF (5) FJFI
1. The more frequently employees take time to exercise during working hours each week, the fewer sick days they take.
2. The development of cost-effective manufacturing techniques is of the highest priority for civilian business and would be neglected if resources go to military projects, which do not emphasize cost efficiency.
3. The increase in taxes or government debt needed to finance the project will severely reduce the vitality of the civilian economy.
4. According to a review of 61 studies of patients suffering from severely debilitating depression, in a large majority of the patients missing a night’s sleep immediately lifted their depression.
(1) JJJI (2) FJIF (3) FJFF (4) JJIF (5) JJJF
1. If India has embarked on the liberalization route, she cannot afford to go back.
2. Under these circumstances, being an active supporter of WTO policies will be a good idea.
3. The WTO is a truly global organization aiming at freer trade.
4. Many member countries have already drafted plans to simplify tariff structures.
(1)FJFI (2) IFJF (3) IJFF (4) IFIF (5) IJFI
1) The Minister definitely took the wrong step.
2) Under the circumstances, he had many other alternatives.
3) The Prime Minister is embarrassed due to the Minister’s decision.
4) If he has put the government in jeopardy, the Minister must resign.
(1)JFFI (2)IFJI (3)FFJI (4)IFIJ (5)IJFI
1) The ideal solution will be to advertise aggressively.
2) One brand is already popular amongst the youth.
3) Reducing prices will mean trouble as our revenues are already dwindling.
4) The correct solution will be to consolidate by aggressive marketing.
(1)JFIJ (2)FJJI (3)IJFF (4)JJIF (5)FFFF
1) If democracy is to survive, the people must develop a sense of consumerism.
2) Consumerism has helped improve the quality of goods in certain countries.
3) The protected environment in our country is helping the local manufacturers.
4) The quality of goods suffers if the manufacturers take undue advantage of this.
(1) IJFJ (2) JFJI (3)IJJF (4)IFJJ (5)FFFF
1) The prices of electronic goods are falling.
2) Since we have substantial reductions in import duties, this is obvious.
3) The trend is bound to continue in the near future.
4) But the turnover of the electronic industry is still rising, because the consumers are increasing at a rapid rate.
(1) IFJF (2) FJII (3) FIJF (4) JIFF (5) JJJJ
1) In the past, it appears, wealth distribution, and not wealth creation has dominated economic policy.
2) Clearly, the government has not bothered to eradicate poverty.
3) Today’s liberalization is far from the hitherto Nehruvian socialism.
4) Results are evident in the form of a boom in the manufacturing sector output and turnover of all industries.
(1) FJIF (2) FIFJ (3) IJIF (4) JIFF (5) JFIF
1) Everyday social life is impossible without interpersonal relationships.
2) The root of many misunderstandings has been cited in poor relations among individuals.
3) Assuming the above to be true, social life will be much better if people understand the importance of good interpersonal relations.
4) A study reveals that interpersonal relations and life in general can be improved with a little effort on the part of individuals.
(1) FJIJ (2) JFIF (3) FIFJ (4) IFFJ (5) JFIF
1) You don’t have to be a biologist or an anthropologist to see how closely the great apes- gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans – resemble us.
2) Even children often remark that their bodies are pretty much the same as ours, apart from some exaggerated proportions and extra body hair.
3) Their faces are quit expressive, showing a range of emotions that are familiar.
4) That why we delight in seeing chimps wearing tuxedo, playing the drums or riding bicycles.
(1) FIJI (2) JFIF (3) IFJI (4) FIFJ (5) JFFJ
1) Introducing organized sport programs for youngsters in the only hope for Indian golf.
2) The general public is beginning to recognize the international standing of the Indian golf players who earn more money than the Indian cricketing icons.
3) In this age when kids are electronically inclined and digitally divided, the high tech gizmo’s is also an attraction for kids to hit a ball and then check the digital read outs.
4) News of corporate investment in the games at the junior level is required not only in golf but also in all other sports.
(1) JIIJ (2) JFIJ (3) IFIJ (4) FFJJ (5) JFJJ