Binary Logic questions are also known as true false teller questions. They form a part of the Data Interpretation and Logical Reasoning part of the CAT question paper. Even though binary logic questions have not been seen in abundance in previous years in CAT paper, at least 1 to 2 questions are present in all the PGDM/MBA entrance exams like SNAP, IIFT and NMAT including CAT. The concept is a part of the CAT exam curriculum, and students are expected to know how to solve these questions as the questions are not very difficult to crack and also less time consuming when compared to other concepts.
Below are the number of questions about this topic that were asked in different competitive MBA exam:
Below you will find certain binary logic reasoning questions for your understanding:
Q.1. Princess, Queen, Rani and Samragni were the four finalists in a dance competition. Ashman, Badal, Gagan and Dyu were the four music composers who individually assigned items to the dancers. Each dancer had to individually perform in two dance items assigned by the different composers. The first items performed by the four dancers were all assigned by different music composers. No dancer performed her second item before the performance of the first item by any other dancers. The dancers performed their second items in the same sequence of their performance of their first items.
[CAT 2019, Slot 1]
The following additional facts are known
i. No composer who assigned an item to Princess, assigned any item to Queen
ii. No composer who assigned an item to Rani, assigned any item to Samragni
iii. The first performance was by Princess; this item was assigned by Badal
iv. The last performance was by Rani; this item was assigned by Gagan
v. The items assigned by Ashman were performed consecutively. The number of performances between items assigned by each of the remaining composers was the same
now from point v) the number of performances between items assigned by each of the remaining composers was the same. this cannot be 1 (because items assigned by a were consecutive) similarly this cannot be 2 or 3 as well if the number of performances between items assigned by each of the remaining composers was 2 or 3 then b must assign performance 4 or 5 which is not possible. thus, this no must be 4. so b must assign performance 6 and g must assign performance no 3. so, the only performances left are 2 and 7 which must be assigned by d. now the complete table will look like –
All the questions can be answered now.
Q.2. Three persons A, B and C gave these statements:
A said, either Freedom Party or Green Party won the elections.
B said, Freedom Party won.
C said, neither Freedom Party nor Green Party won the elections.
Of these persons, only one person is wrong.
Who won the elections?
1. Freedom Party
2. Green Party
3. Data Inadequate
4. None of these
The questions on True false teller are based on the understanding of the arithmetic operators AND, OR and NOT. There are only two possible outcomes- True and False, also known as 0 and 1 in the computer language. In questions related to this concept, people answer in 2 to 3 statements in which some statements are true and some are false. The people, based on their statements can be classified as follows:
Truth-teller: He always will speak the truth and all the statements spoken by him are true.
Lie-teller: He will always lie and all the statements spoken by him are false.
Switcher: This person keeps on shifting between lies and truth that keep on changing on an alternate basis which means if his first statement is true, second is false and vice versa.
Let us understand this concept of true or false questions with the help of an example:
Mohan went to a city on which there were three kinds of people. People of one kind always spoke the truth. People of the second kind always lied. People who belonged to the third kind spoke the truth and lie alternately. The city had only 3 fruits i.e. apple, mango and banana. Mohan found three people X, Y and Z asked them about their favourite fruits.
Their responses were as follows.
X: I like apples. Y likes mango
Y: Z likes mango. X likes banana
Z: I like apples. X likes banana
If it is known that X, Y and Z belonged to different kinds of people and each one of them liked a different fruit, then answer the following questions.
Who likes apple?
d) cannot be determined
Who belongs to the kind of truth-tellers?
d) cannot be determined
Who belongs to the kind of switchers?
d) cannot be determined
Let us assume that Y belongs to the kind of people who always speak the truth. Therefore, we can say that Z likes mango and X likes banana, so Y must like apples. Once we have established this, we will check if the statements by other people validate our assumption or not. X says I like apple which is incorrect since we have established that Y likes apple. His second statement is that Y likes mangoes. This statement is also false since Y likes apples. Hence, both the statements of X are wrong and therefore he must belong to the kind of people who are liars. Now if our assumption is correct then Z must be the switcher. Z’s first statement is incorrect since Y likes apple. Z’s second statement is that X likes banana. This is true. Hence the statements validate our assumption. Therefore, Y is the truth-teller, Z is the switcher and X is the liar. Therefore, Z likes mango and X likes banana and Y likes apple.
For the understanding of the candidate, the preparation is divided into 3 levels:
For level 1 preparation candidates need to gain a basic understanding of the concept of binary logic. Logical reasoning topics are all about practice because no formulas need to be remembered. Therefore, to approach the topic, take a question and try to extract all the information given. Pay heed to the constraints and try different assumptions to see what works and what contradicts. Take the help of the basic framework explained above. Use MBAP CAT E-book (Concept theory) study material for practicing binary logic CAT examples. Developing critical thinking is an essential objective in this level of preparation.
When the candidate reaches this level, the expectation is that he has solved the basic questions and is clear with the concept and approach. Now, the focus should be on the structured thinking which helps the student reduce the number of cases possible through the process of elimination. Here, in binary logic concepts, if one starts by assuming a truth-teller, the question usually becomes easy and less time-consuming. Watch MBAP live lecture Recording (Basic). Candidates can also find some examples in MBAP Previous year CAT question paper.
This level focusses on time management and solving the previous year CAT questions by timing oneself. Here, the candidate should be ready for approaching questions that have a high level of difficulty. They can find out such examples of binary logic in the logical reasoning puzzles section from MBAP CAT E-book (Practice Questions).CAT questions from this topic are usually easy and a candidate can score full marks in this concept, hence, this topic should be well prepared through question-solving and analysis.