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174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International | CAT VARC Questions- Reading Comprehension

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The question below is from previous year CAT question from CAT 2020 exam comes from CAT Reading Comprehension: 174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International . Find out by answering this question which tests an aspirant’s CAT VARC skills:

CAT 2020 – Slot -2 - Question 2 - 174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International

Set-2: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question for RC about " 174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International" ;

174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International Maritime Bureau last year, with Somali pirates responsible for only three. The rest ranged from the discreet theft of coils of rope in the Yellow Sea to the notoriously ferocious Nigerian gunmen attacking and hijacking oil tankers in the Gulf of Guinea, as well as armed robbery off Singapore and the Venezuelan coast and kidnapping in the Sundarbans in the Bay of Bengal. For [Dr. Peter] Lehr, an expert on modern-day piracy, the phenomenon’s history should be a source of instruction rather than entertainment, piracy past offering lessons for piracy present. . . .

But . . . where does piracy begin or end? According to St Augustine, a corsair captain once told Alexander the Great that in the forceful acquisition of power and wealth at sea, the difference between an emperor and a pirate was simply one of scale. By this logic, European empire-builders were the most successful pirates of all time. A more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganised small fry, making comparisons with the renegades of today possible. The main motive for piracy has always been a combination of need and greed. Why toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate made up to £4,000 on each raid? Anyone could turn to freebooting if the rewards were worth the risk . . . .

Increased globalisation has done more to encourage piracy than suppress it. European colonialism weakened delicate balances of power, leading to an influx of opportunists on the high seas. A rise in global shipping has meant rich pickings for freebooters. Lehr writes: “It quickly becomes clear that in those parts of the world that have not profited from globalisation and modernisation, and where abject poverty and the daily struggle for survival are still a reality, the root causes of piracy are still the same as they were a couple of hundred years ago.” . . .

Modern pirate prevention has failed. After the French yacht Le Gonant was ransomed for $2 million in 2008, opportunists from all over Somalia flocked to the coast for a piece of the action. . . . A consistent rule, even today, is there are never enough warships to patrol pirate-infested waters. Such ships are costly and only solve the problem temporarily; Somali piracy is bound to return as soon as the warships are withdrawn. Robot shipping, eliminating hostages, has been proposed as a possible solution; but as Lehr points out, this will only make pirates switch their targets to smaller carriers unable to afford the technology.

His advice isn’t new. Proposals to end illegal fishing are often advanced but they are difficult to enforce. Investment in local welfare put a halt to Malaysian piracy in the 1970s, but was dependent on money somehow filtering through a corrupt bureaucracy to the poor on the periphery. Diplomatic initiatives against piracy are plagued by mutual distrust: the Russians execute pirates, while the EU and US are reluctant to capture them for fear they’ll claim asylum.

Q6. “A more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganised small fry . . .” From this statement we can infer that the author believes that:

a. colonialism should be considered an organised form of piracy.

b. the disorganised piracy of today is no match for the organised piracy of the past.

c. Lehr does not assign adequate blame to empire builders for their past deeds.

d. Vasco da Gama and the East India Company laid the ground for modern piracy.   

6. A.

Note the context in which the given statement is made. In paragraph 2, the author asks where piracy begins or ends and says “European empire-builders were the most successful pirates of all time”. So, the author believes

Q7. We can deduce that the author believes that piracy can best be controlled in the long run:

a. through international cooperation in enforcing stringent deterrents.

b. if we eliminate poverty and income disparities in affected regions.

c. through the extensive deployment of technology to track ships and cargo. 

d. through lucrative welfare schemes to improve the lives of people in affected regions.

7. B.

According to the passage, the “root causes” of piracy are abject poverty and the daily struggle for survival (paragraph 4). The author also explains in the last two paragraphs that international cooperation in enforcing strict deterrents, investments in local welfare and using technology solutions like robot shipping have failed.

Q8. “Why toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate made up to £4,000 on each raid?” In this sentence, the author’s tone can best be described as being:

a. facetious, about the hardships of peasant life in medieval England.

b. ironic, about the reasons why so many took to piracy in medieval times.

c. analytical, to explain the contrasts between peasant and pirate life in medieval England.

d. indignant, at the scale of wealth successful pirates could amass in medieval times. 

8. B.

Clearly, the author’s tone here is sardonic/ironic, highlighting how much more rewarding it was to engage in piracy than toiling away as a peasant in medieval times.

Q9. The author ascribes the rise in piracy today to all of the following factors EXCEPT:

a. the growth in international shipping with globalisation.

b. colonialism’s disruption of historic ties among countries. 

c. the high rewards via ransoms for successful piracy attempts. 

d. decreased surveillance of the high seas.

9. D.

The passage states that there are never enough warships to patrol pirate-infested waters, but this does not imply that the surveillance at the high seas is declining, just that the scale of the problem is large. All other reasons for rise in piracy today are mentioned in the lines “Increased globalisation has done more to encourage piracy than suppress it. European colonialism weakened delicate balances of power, leading to an influx of opportunists on the high seas.”

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