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15. “[A]n enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or animosity toward their subject.” Which one of the following best explicates the larger point being made by the author here?
a. In certain kinds of aggression, inflicting pain is not the objective, and is no more than a utilitarian means to achieve another end.
b. When an enemy combatant refuses to reveal information, the use of torture can sometimes involve real feelings of hostility.
c. Information revealed by subjecting an enemy combatant to torture is not always reliable because of the animosity involved.
d. The use of torture to extract information is most effective when the torturer is not emotionally involved in the torture.
16. All of the following statements can be seen as logically implied by the arguments of the passage EXCEPT:
a. Freud’s theory of aggression proposes that aggression results from the suppression of aggressive urges.
b. the Freudian theory of suicide as self-inflicted aggression implies that an aggressive act need not be sought to be avoided in order for it to be considered aggression.
c. a common theory of aggression is that it is the result of an abnormally low neural regulation of testosterone.
d. if the alleged aggressive act is not sought to be avoided, it cannot really be considered aggression.
The passage states that an abnormally low neural regulation of aggressive impulses (not testosterone) in humans accounts for hostile behaviours.
Other statements are implied from the line “Sigmund Freud (1930) proposed that all individuals are born with a death instinct that predisposes us to a variety of aggressive behaviors, including suicide (self directed aggression)…”
17. The author identifies three essential factors according to which theories of aggression are most commonly categorised. Which of the following options is closest to the factors identified by the author?
a. Extreme – Moderate – Mild.
b. Hostile – Instrumental – Hormonal.
c. Aggressor – Circumstances of aggression – Victim.
d. Psychologically – Sociologically – Medically.
The last few lines of the first paragraph have the answer: “The first variable is the aggressor him/herself. The second is the social situation or circumstance in which the aggressive act(s) occur. The third variable is the target or victim of aggression.”
18. The author discusses all of the following arguments in the passage EXCEPT that:
a. aggression in most societies is kept under control through moderating the death instinct identified by Freud.
b. the nature of aggression can vary depending on several factors, including intent.
c. men in general are believed to be more hormonally driven to exhibit violence than women.
d. several studies indicate that aggression may have roots in the biological condition of humanity.
Only the idea in option A is not mentioned in the passage.
From the first few lines of the passage we know option B is true and from the last few lines line, we know options C and D are true.