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Q23. The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.
a. Distinguishing between urban and rural areas might call for some judgement on the objective methodology being used to define a city’s functions.
b. The difficulty of accurately identifying urban areas means that we need to create a rich combination of criteria that can be applied to all urban areas.
c. Current methodologies used to define urban and rural areas are no longer relevant to our being able to study trends in urbanisation.
d. With the diversity of urban landscapes, measurable criteria for defining urban areas may need to be supplemented with human judgement.
The main idea of the paragraph is that, given the rural-urban continuum, in order to identify urban areas and measure urbanization rates in a consistent manner we need not only a richer combination of measurable criteria but also some element of human judgement. Option D captures all key ideas.
Options A and B are limited to one idea, A to human judgement and B to the combination of criteria. Option C is too general and does not include key points.