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The claims advanced here may be condensed | CAT VARC Questions- Reading Comprehension

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The question below is from previous year CAT question from CAT 2020 exam comes from CAT Reading Comprehension: The claims advanced here may be condensed . Find out by answering this question which tests an aspirant’s CAT VARC skills:

CAT 2020 – Slot -2 - Question 1 - The claims advanced here may be condensed

Set-1: The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question for RC about "The claims advanced here may be condensed" ;

Set 1- The claims advanced here may be condensed into two assertions: [first, that visual] culture is what images, acts of seeing, and attendant intellectual, emotional, and perceptual sensibilities do to build, maintain, or transform the worlds in which people live. [And second, that the] study of visual culture is the analysis and interpretation of images and the ways of seeing (or gazes) that configure the agents, practices, conceptualities, and institutions that put images to work. . . .

Accordingly, the study of visual culture should be characterized by several concerns. First, scholars of visual culture need to examine any and all imagery – high and low, art and nonart. . . . They must not restrict themselves to objects of a particular beauty or aesthetic value. Indeed, any kind of imagery may be found to offer up evidence of the visual construction of reality. . . .

Second, the study of visual culture must scrutinize visual practice as much as images themselves, asking what images do when they are put to use. If scholars engaged in this enterprise inquire what makes an image beautiful or why this image or that constitutes a masterpiece or a work of genius, they should do so with the purpose of investigating an artist’s or a work’s contribution to the experience of beauty, taste, value, or genius. No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo. They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value. But study of the critical, artistic, and popular reception of works by such artists as Michelangelo and Leonardo can shed important light on the meaning of these artists and their works for many different people. And the history of meaning-making has a great deal to do with how scholars as well as lay audiences today understand these artists and their achievements.

Third, scholars studying visual culture might properly focus their interpretative work on lifeworlds by examining images, practices, visual technologies, taste, and artistic style as constitutive of social relations. The task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world. . . . Important methodological implications follow: ethnography and reception studies become productive forms of gathering information, since these move beyond the image as a closed and fixed meaning-event. . . .

Fourth, scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation. Vision is a socially and a biologically constructed operation, depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly. . . . Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience. Finally, the scholar of visual culture seeks to regard images as evidence for explanation, not as epiphenomena.

Q1. Which one of the following best describes the word “epiphenomena” in the last sentence of the passage?

a. Phenomena amenable to analysis.

b. Phenomena supplemental to the evidence.

c. Overarching collections of images.

d. Visual phenomena of epic proportions.

1. B.

Note the context in which the word is used: “the scholar of visual culture seeks to regard images as evidence for explanation, not as epiphenomena”. Substituting each of the answer options instead of ‘epiphenomena’ in this sentence, we see that only option B makes sense. Epiphenomena are phenomena supplemental to the evidence.

Q2. All of the following statements may be considered valid inferences from the passage, EXCEPT:

a. artifacts are meaningful precisely because they help to construct the meanings of the world for us.

b. studying visual culture requires institutional structures without which the structures of perception cannot be analysed.

c. understanding the structures of perception is an important part of understanding how visual cultures work.

d. visual culture is not just about how we see, but also about how our visual practices can impact and change the world

2. B.

The passage does not mention ‘institutional structures’ or talk about these being essential to the study of visual culture.

 

From the line, “…task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world”, we understand A is true. C is true, based on the line “..scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation”. D is also true, based on the first paragraph.

Q3. “No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo.” In light of the passage, which one of the following interpretations of this sentence is the most accurate?

a. Social analytical accounts of people like Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot explain their genius.

b. Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot be subjected to social analysis because of their genius.

c. No analyses exist of Michelangelo’s or Leonardo’s social accounts.

d. Socially existing beings cannot be analysed, unlike the art of Michelangelo or Leonardo which can.

3. A.

Note the line that follows the given line in the passage: “They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value.”In other words, social analysis cannot fully account for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo as it cannot explain their genius

Q4. “Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.” In light of the passage, which one of the following statements best conveys the meaning of this sentence?

a. Sight becomes a meaningful visual experience because of covenants of meaningfulness that we establish with the images we see.

b. The way we experience sight is through images operated on by meaningful covenants.

c. Images are meaningful visual experiences when they have a foundation of covenants seeing them.

d. Sight as a meaningful visual experience is possible when there is a foundational condition established in images of covenants.

4. A.

The given sentence implies sight works on the basis of covenants with images we see. These help establish a meaningful visual experience. Option A captures the meaning of the line best.

Q5. Which set of keywords below most closely captures the arguments of the passage?

a. Visual Culture, Aesthetic Value, Lay Audience, Visual Experience.

b. Scholars, Social Analysis, Michelangelo and Leonardo, Interpretive Devices.

c. Imagery, Visual Practices, Lifeworlds, Structures of Perception.

d. Visual Construction of Reality, Work of Genius, Ethnography, Epiphenomena.

5. C.

All words in option C relate to key ideas in the passage.

 

Option A mentions ‘lay audience’ which is not a key idea. In the same way, options B and D mention ‘Michelangelo and Leonardo’ and ‘work of genius’ respectively. The passage mentions Michelangelo and Leonardo but that is to make a point about meaning-making.

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