Syllogism

Syllogism, in simple words, means inference or conclusion drawn from the given statements. These are the reasoning questions that are inclined towards checking the candidate’s logical ability. Syllogism questions contain two or more statements followed by some conclusions. Even though these statements don’t tend to be factually or logically correct, we need to assume these to be true. Then we need to access the relationship between the given statements and check whether the conclusion statements are correct or not.

Importance

If you are gearing up for the speed based exams like NMAT, IIFT, SNAP, MICAT, CMAT, etc. then you don’t want to leave a topic that can help you in increasing your score. The syllogism is the topic in the reasoning section that varies from easy to the moderate difficulty level. The question containing 2 or 3 statements can be easily comprehendible and most of the time we end up choosing the correct conclusion. Using the method of Venn Diagram makes the solution to these questions, easy and less time-consuming.

Refer to the below table for more information.

 
ExamYearNo. of
Questions
Good
Attempt
Difficulty
IIFT201711Easy
CMAT202022Easy
CMAT201811Easy
TISSNET201811Easy

List of Concepts in Syllogism

Deductive Reasoning: Deductive reasoning or deductive logic is the process of reasoning from one or more statements to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning can be considered the same as that of the conditionals i.e. it links premises with conclusions. For eg. All men are mortal. Antony is a man. The deductive reasoning or conclusion from these statements is, Antony is mortal.

Venn Diagram: Instead of using conventional methods to solve syllogism questions, we can use the diagrammatical approach. Even if 4 or 5 statements are given, we can find the correct conclusion by drawing the correct Venn diagram. Using the Venn diagram to solve the above example:

 
Points to remember: While solving syllogism questions, be mindful of these four terms. It helps you in selecting the elements/ objects.
1. ALL (Every object in the group can be selected)
2. SOME (A few objects in the group can be selected)
3. NONE (All the objects in the group can be left out)
4. SOME NOT (A few objects in the group can be left out)
 

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Previous year Questions

CMAT

Q. The following question is given by 2 statements and 2 conclusions numbered I and II. Choose the right answer from the given options. 

Statements: 

All huts are bungalows. 

All bungalows are churches. 

Conclusions: 

I. Some churches are huts. 

II. Some churches are bungalows. 

Options:
A) If only conclusion II follows
B) If either conclusion I or II follows 
C) If only conclusion I follows
D) If both conclusions I and II follow 
 

Answer: D

CMAT

Q. In the following question, select one alternative in which the third statement is implied by the first two statements. 

A) All wolves are wild. All tigers are wild. So, all tigers are wolves.

B) All buses are boxes. All hens are buses. So, all boxes are hens. 

C) All POR can run. All ABC are POR. So, all ABC can run.

D) All oranges are red. Some peaches are strawberries. So, all peaches are red. 

 

Answer: C

TISSNET

Q. If all apples are red, and some apples are juicy, which of the following statements is true? 

i) All apples are juicy. 

ii) Some juicy apples are red. 

iii) Some red apples are juicy. 

A) First statement 

B) Second and Third Statement 

C) Third Statement 

D) None of the above 

 

Answer: C

IIFT

Q. In the following question, two statements are given each followed by two conclusions I and II. You have to consider the statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the given conclusions, if any, follows from the given statements. 

Statements:

(I) Most crops are machines. 

(II) Some machines are fools. 

Conclusion: 

(I) Some fools are machines. 

(II) Some crops are fools. 

Options: 

A) Conclusion I follows

B) Conclusion II follows 

C) Neither I nor II follows 

D) Both I and II follow 

 

Answer: A

IIFT

Q. In each of the following questions have the respective statements and related conclusions. You have to take the given statement is as correct and answer the following questions.

Statements:

Some windows are doors

 All doors are walls 

No wall is a roof 

All roofs are shelters 

Conclusions: 

I) Some windows are walls 

II) No wall is shelter 

III) No door is shelter 

Options:

A) None follows 

B) Only II and III follow

C) Only I and III follow

D) Only I follows

E) None of these 

 

Answer: D

How to deal with Syllogism preparation?

Level 1

  • Understand the terms all, some, none, and some not for Syllogisms
  • Get acquainted with the concepts of Deductive Reasoning and Venn Diagrams
  • Start with the two statements questions as it will be easy to visualize the conclusions

Level 2

  • Check which of the above-mentioned method is working for you. Usually, candidates find it easy to use Venn Diagrams to solve syllogism questions
  • Start shifting to the questions having three statements
  • Try to solve the questions with both methods if you are not sure which method to choose

Level 3

  • Till now you must be well versed with both the methods and should have selected which method to choose in solving questions in the exam
  • Start solving previous year papers’ questions
  • Time yourself while solving the questions
  • Start doing questions having more than three statements
  • Keep practicing
 

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